Stream A: Small Water Systems

1.1 Fanny Bay Waterworks District upgrades and aquifer monitoring

1.2 Small water systems: Design challenges to meet current regulations

1.3 Effects of water characteristics on the treatment efficiency of VUV to remove chemical contaminants from drinking water

1.4 Shock chlorination and health protection: Best Practices, limitations and research gaps.

1.5 Case Study: Evans Lake water filtration system

1.6 Keeping accurate records and data management

1.7 What you need to know about disinfection by-products

1.8 Case study: Heather Jean Properties' dirty spring

1.9 Case study: Ridgewood Improvement District


 

1.1 Fanny Bay Waterworks District upgrades and aquifer monitoring

Presented By: Dr. John Brennen, Fanny Bay Waterworks District.
Time: 9:30 - 10:00 AM

Over the last 15 years, the Fanny Bay Waterworks district water system has undergone several major changes. The most recent is the monitoring of the aquifer and system pressure. It started with the addition of an 110,000 imperial gallon tank on the upper western border our district and the new water distribution pipe system. Our chlorination system became famous for what not to do in the teaching annals. We cleaned up the chlorine system giving it its own house. We then tore out all the electrical from the power pole to the pumps and started all over again. In order to reduce our escalating operator costs we automate the system using three PLC's. Initially, we used pressure as the prime indicator for filling the tank but later we went to limit switches mounted in the top of the tank. Our last addition was to install three sensors to monitor the well depth and aquifer behaviour, well temperature and system pressure. Accompanying these latter additions were data loggers, a laptop computer, software for data analysis and connection to the internet. Our operator, who once lived in his house near the storage tank, now lives in Courtenay 25 km away and can monitor the water system health on his iPhone.

This paper is about the first summer of monitoring our aquifer and system description on a budget.

pdf icon Presentation PDF 



1.2 Small water systems: Design challenges to meet current regulations

Presented By: Mike Seymour, MSR Solutions Inc.
Time: 10:00 - 10:30 AM

There are numerous small water systems located in remote communities in BC, which are nearing the end of life on mechanical components and do not meet the current regulations. Small water systems generally have inadequate funding, but are required to provide high quality water analogous to larger systems.

TerraVista and Akiskinook strata community are located in the East Kootenays and draw water from Lake Windermere. The systems were installed in the mid-1970s and only chlorination was provided for treatment. Interior Health Authority (IHA) has mandated that all water treatment suppliers work toward meeting the "4-3-2-1-0" Drinking Water Objectives. These communities have insufficient capital and providing a cost-effective system that provides safe drinking water at all times, is a challenge.

Although many high-cost options were provided, the recurring theme of inadequate resources, funding and government's lack of support to small systems dragged solutions on and maintained Boil Water Notices to the detriment of all parties. A safe and cost-effective treatment option for these communities is the provision of multi-barrier safeguards including filtration with cartridge-filters, UV disinfection to provide an additional barrier and chlorination with a residual. The phased upgrade approach is generally feasible and economical for small systems. The challenges of providing a water treatment system design that meets the current regulations and is affordable for small communities will be elucidated in this paper.

pdf icon Presentation PDF 



1.3 Effects of water characteristics on the treatment efficiency of VUV to remove chemical contaminants from drinking water

Presented By: Laith Furatian, University of British Columbia.
Time: 10:30 - 11:00 AM

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an accepted method of drinking water disinfection. UV can also be used as a method of advanced oxidation to treat chemical contaminants such as naturally occurring taste and odor compounds and man-made pollutants, which are difficult to remove by conventional water treatment methods. An additional benefit of UV treatment is the ease with which it can be applied to small systems. Conventional UV lamps use light emitted at a wavelength of 254 nm for disinfection of microbial pathogens. Modification of the conventional system allows emission of light at 185 nm (Far-UV or VUV) from the same lamp, which can be used for the destruction of chemical contaminants, allowing disinfection and oxidation to be performed simultaneously. In the current study, the effectiveness of VUV to treat select chemical contaminants has been studied at both bench and pilot scale for different water characteristics. Results have shown that the efficiency of treatment depends to varying extent on the water characteristics, including temperature, pH, alkalinity, chloride, and TOC. These results are necessary for proper site-specific design of a VUV reactor capable of meeting the treatment objectives for removal of chemical contaminants.

pdf icon Presentation PDF 



1.4 Shock chlorination and health protection: Best practices, limitations and research gaps

Presented By: Angela J. Eykelbosh, University of British Columbia
Time: 2:00 - 2:30 PM

Microbial contamination of groundwater from private wells can pose a significant health risk to rural Canadians. To mitigate risk, Health Canada currently recommends shock chlorination along with microbial well testing, voluntary measures most often performed by the homeowner. However, infrequent testing and paucity of research assessing the effectiveness of shock chlorination guidance as practiced by homeowners, may leave private well users vulnerable to persistent or periodic groundwater contamination. Although shock chlorination is important for both health protection and well maintenance, it is not sufficient on its own to guarantee safe drinking water. Rather, shock chlorination should be integrated into a well stewardship approach consisting of adequate well protection and maintenance, a water-monitoring program, and responsible decommissioning of abandoned wells.

In this presentation, the variety of guidelines for shock chlorination published within Canada will be discussed; including who publishes the guidelines and how they differ in terms of their distinct objectives. The focus of the presentation will be on BC's currently available guidance documents (for private wells and small systems) as well as, the problems encountered with typical shock chlorination protocols and what research has to say about them. Finally, there will be a discussion of procedures, difficulties, and cautions associated with shock chlorination, with emphasis put on the importance of vigilance and rigorous, frequent microbiological testing.

 

 

1.5 Case study: Evans Lake water filtration system

Presented By: Kevin Berryman, Evans Lake Camp
Time: 2:30 - 3:00 PM

In this presentation, our focus will be on the development of the water filtration system at Evans Lake.

We will begin with an introduction to Evan's Lake, followed by the history of the water systems at Evans Lake Forest Education Centre from 1965 to present day. It will examine past water systems, including the original water storage tank and concrete well, which was treated with chlorine.

The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the present water filtration system, including the struggles and frustrations that were faced during the development and implementation phases.

 

 

1.6 Keeping accurate records and data management

Presented By: Dr. Cristina Fonseca
Time: 3:00 - 3:30 PM

Abstract coming soon.

 

 

1.7 What you need to know about disinfection by-products

Presented By: Keith Kohut, Associated Engineering.
Time: 3:45 - 4:15 PM

Regardless of community size, public water purveyors are responsible for providing a water supply that is safe to drink. One of the key elements of a safe drinking water supply, common to all drinking water systems, is protecting the consumer from potential microbiological contamination in the form of protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Disinfection is commonly employed as a way to protect the consumer from microbiological activity. However, the modern public water purveyor is faced with a conundrum: the disinfectant that is added to protect the consumer may react with organics to create byproducts that pose a different threat to consumers. Without a broader understanding of this second issue the water purveyor may be uncertain as to how to safely provide water to their community.

This presentation provides an overview of the topic of disinfection byproducts, focusing on the particular byproducts commonly identified as potential risks to drinking water consumers. For each of these byproducts, the cause of formation, the potential health impacts, and the regulatory objectives will be discussed. The presentation will also address how to assess the actual risk to a particular water system and how to keep track of this risk throughout the water system’s life.

 

 

1.8 Case study: Heather Jean Properties' dirty spring

Presented By: Eduard Klassen, Heather Jean Properties.
Time: 4:15 - 4:45 PM

Heather Jean Properties is a small 18 lot development located on Lillooet Lake, approximately a half hour north of Pemberton. A small water system was designed and built in partnership with Arden Consulting Engineering (ACE). What made the small water system for Heather Jean Properties successful was ACE's use of local field information in their design. The result was a remarkable small water system with low maintenance and operating costs.

This presentation will focus on the design, development, and implementation of the state of the art small water system at Heather Jean Properties.

 

 

1.9 Case study: Ridgewood Improvement District

Presented By: Nathan Ward, Steve Thomson, Aquadiversities.
Time: 4:45 - 5:15 PM

Aquadiversities Inc. and 9dot Engineering Inc. are based in Nelson BC and specialize in community drinking water systems. The presentation at the BCWWA Annual Conference will summarize the regulatory and subsequent infrastructure challenges associated with small community water systems and a proven approach to implementing economical solutions. Follow the process and initiatives undertaken by Aquadiversities Inc. to bring community water systems to fruition from the initial assessments to system commissioning and operation. Learn the challenges and benefits of successfully retrofitting an existing system or implementing a new small community drinking water system in British Columbia. Tools for working with EHO's and water user groups, innovative approaches, quantitative effectiveness and future planning will be discussed. Examples of IHA approved community water systems in BC will be highlighted, in particular the Ridgewood Road Improvement District 45gpm water system.



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